From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The REAL ID Act of 2005, Pub.L. 109-13, 119 Stat. 302, enacted May 11, 2005, was an Act of Congress that modified U.S. federal law pertaining to security, authentication, and issuance procedures standards for the state driver’s licenses and identification (ID) cards, as well as various immigration issues pertaining to terrorism.
The law set forth certain requirements for state driver’s licenses and ID cards to be accepted by the federal government for “official purposes”, as defined by the Secretary of Homeland Security. The Secretary of Homeland Security has currently defined “official purposes” as presenting state driver’s licenses and identification cards for boarding commercially operated airline flights and entering federal buildings and nuclear power plants.
The REAL ID Act implements the following:
- Title II of the act establishes new federal standards for state-issued driver licenses and non-driver identification cards.
- Changing visa limits for temporary workers, nurses, and Australian citizens.
- Funding some reports and pilot projects related to border security.
- Introducing rules covering “delivery bonds” (similar to bail bonds but for aliens who have been released pending hearings).
- Updating and tightening the laws on application for asylum and deportation of aliens for terrorist activity.
- Waiving laws that interfere with construction of physical barriers at the borders.
As of April 2, 2008, all 50 states have either applied for extensions of the original May 11, 2008 compliance deadline or received unsolicited extensions. As of October 2009, 25 states have approved either resolutions or binding legislation not to participate in the program, and with President Obama’s selection of Janet Napolitano (a prominent critic of the program) to head the Department of Homeland Security, the future of the law remains uncertain, and bills have been introduced into Congress to amend or repeal it. The most recent of these, dubbed PASS ID, would eliminate many of the more burdensome technological requirements but still require states to meet federal standards in order to have their ID cards accepted by federal agencies.
PASS ID is a proposed U.S. law intended to replace REAL ID. Like REAL ID, it implements federal standards for state identification documents. Currently, states are not obligated to follow the standards, but if PASS ID takes full effect, federal agencies will only accept identification from states that materially comply with the law. Citizens from non-compliant states would need to provide federally issued documents such as a social security card or U.S. passport in order to enter federally-owned buildings.
PASS ID would eliminate REAL ID requirements that are considered excessive, such as the obligation to verify birth certificates with the issuing department, and shared national databases. However, critics charge PASS ID will still require the storage of digital records of documents proving citizenship, such as birth certificates. It may also permit technology like RFID to be incorporated into drivers’ licenses.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Radio-frequency identification is the use of a wireless non-contact system that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking. Some tags require no battery and are powered by the electromagnetic fields used to read them. Others use a local power source and emit radio waves (electromagnetic radiation at radio frequencies). The tag contains electronically stored information which can be read from up to several metres (yards) away. Unlike a bar code, the tag does not need to be within line of sight of the reader and may be embedded in the tracked object.
RFID chip next to a grain of rice. This chip contains a radio-frequency electromagnetic field coil that modulates an external magnetic field to transfer a coded identification number when queried by a reader device. This small type is incorporated in consumer products, and even implanted in pets, for identification.
RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line. Pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses. Livestock and pets may have tags injected, allowing positive identification of the animal. RFID identity cards can give employees access to locked areas of a building, and RF transponders mounted in automobiles can be used to bill motorists for access to toll roads or parking.
Since RFID tags can be attached to clothing, possessions, or even implanted within people, the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised privacy concerns.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by moving electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitation, the weak interaction, and the strong interaction).The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law.From a classical perspective, the electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagated in a wavelike manner; whereas from the perspective of quantum field theory, the field is seen as quantized, being composed of individual particles.
Health and safety
The potential health effects of the very low frequency EMFs surrounding power lines and electrical devices are the subject of on-going research and a significant amount of public debate. In workplace environments, where EMF exposures can be up to 10,000 times greater than the average, the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has issued some cautionary advisories but stresses that the data is currently too limited to draw good conclusions.
The potential effects of electromagnetic fields on human health vary widely depending on the frequency and intensity of the fields. For more information on the health effects due to specific parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, see the following articles:
- Static electric fields: see Electric shock
- Static magnetic fields: see MRI#Safety
- Extremely low frequency (ELF): see Power lines#Health concerns
- Radio frequency (RF): see Electromagnetic radiation and health
- Light: see Laser safety
- Ultraviolet (UV): see Sunburn
- Gamma rays: see Gamma ray
- Mobile telephony: see Mobile phone radiation and health
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Leukemia and cancer
Suggesting no significant link
In 1997 the National Cancer Institute (NCI) released a report published in the New England Journal of Medicine, the result of a seven-year epidemiological investigation. The study investigated 638 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 620 controls and concluded that their study provided “little evidence that living in homes characterized by high measured time-weighted average magnetic-field levels or by the highest wire-code category increases the risk of ALL in children.”Following the report, the US Department of Energy disbanded the EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) Program, saying that its services were no longer needed.
In 2005, the Canadian Federal-Provincial-Territorial Radiation Protection Committee said, “The outcome of a recently conducted pooled analysis of several epidemiological studies shows a two-fold increase in the risk of leukemia in children living in homes, where the average magnetic field levels are greater than 0.4 microtesla (4 milligauss). [However,] it is the opinion of [this committee] that the epidemiological evidence to date is not strong enough to justify a conclusion that EMFs in Canadian homes, regardless of locations from power lines, cause leukemia in children.”
The World Health Organization issued a fact sheet, No. 322, in June, 2007 based on the findings of a WHO work group (2007), the IARC (2002) and the ICNIRP (2003), which reviewed research conducted since the earlier publication. The fact sheet says “that there are no substantive health issues related to ELF electric fields at levels generally encountered by members of the public.” For ELF magnetic fields, the fact sheet says, “the evidence related to childhood leukaemia is not strong enough to be considered causal”, and “[as regards] other childhood cancers, cancers in adults, … The WHO Task Group concluded that scientific evidence supporting an association between ELF magnetic field exposure and all of these health effects is much weaker than for childhood leukaemia. In some instances (i.e., for … breast cancer) the evidence suggests that these fields do not cause them.”
According to Dr. Lakshmikumar at the National Physical Laboratory, India, a direct, causal, link between RF radiation and cancer (including leukemia) would require one to be “willing to discard Planck’s Law… and the entire body of quantum physics.”
In 2010, Maslanyj et al., applying the Bradford-Hill criteria to available evidence, considered the application of low-cost exposure reduction measures as appropriate precautionary responses to “small and uncertain public health risks”. Even after pooling all the data, they found it fell short of establishing “strength of association, dose-response relationship, biological plausibility and coherence, and analogy”. They recognised that controversy would continue so long as other interpretations of the data were possible.
Suggesting a significant link
In 2001, Ahlbom et al. conducted a review into EMFs and Health, and found that there was a doubling in childhood leukemia for magnetic fields of over 0.4 µT, but said that that it “… may be partly due to bias. This is difficult to interpret in the absence of a known mechanism or reproducible experimental support”.
In 2002 a study by Michelozzi et al. found a relationship between leukemia and proximity to the Vatican Radio station transmitters although “the study has limitations because of the small number of cases and the lack of exposure data.”.
In 2005 Draper et al. found a 70% increase in childhood leukemia for those living within 200 metres (656 ft) of an overhead transmission line, and a 23% increase for those living between 200 and 600 metres (656 and 1,969 ft). The authors concluded that “the relation may be due to chance or confounding”. The authors considered it unlikely that the increase from 200 m to 600 m is related to magnetic fields as they are well below 0.4 µT at this distance. Bristol University (UK) has published work on a theory that could account for this increase, and would also provide a potential mechanism, being that the electric fields around power lines attract aerosol pollutants.
Electromagnetic Radiation ( EMR ) And Potential Adverse Health Affects
In Brisbane, Queensland, from 1995 until 2006 14 women working night shift for ABC TV in the same room contracted breast cancer. On 13th July 2007 it was reported that a 15th woman working in the same room had also been diagnosed with breast cancer.
And also in July 2007 a Sydney hospital announced it was investigating a possible cancer cluster after five female staff members were diagnosed with breast cancer within six years. Management at Concord Hospital, in Sydney’s west revealed it launched a preliminary investigation in May concerning cancer patterns among staff. Five female workers were diagnosed with the disease between 2001 and 2006.
“These are sufficient to classify a causal relationship between EMR and breast cancer, with melatonin reduction as the biological mechanism.” Dr Neil Cherry”
In Melbourne in 2006 seven people at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) developed brain tumours two floors underneath transmitting antennas. They had been working there for ten years.
“Over 40 studies [show] that cell phone frequencies [mirror] the biological and epidemiological studies for EMR over the past four decades. This includes…increased brain cancer. I predict a significant increase in brain tumours in younger groups than normal from the use of mobiles.”62
Symptoms of reduced immune system competence, cardiac problems, especially of the arrhythmic type and cancers, especially brain tumour and leukaemia are probable.”
Prostate and Testicular Cancer
An Australian Institute for health and Welfare report shows that rates of prostate cancer have risen 42% in the past five years, pushing up the number of prostate cancer cases by 50% to an estimated 18,700 in 2006.”
“In 2003 prostate cancer was named by the AIHW as one of the most common cancers in Australia. There is a large and coherent body of evidence of biological mechanisms that support the conclusion of a plausible, logical and causal relationship between EMR exposure and cancer, cardiac, neurological and reproductive health effects.” Dr Neil Cherry”
Asthma and Allergies
A report in July 2007 published in the Medical Journal of Australia claimed that young children are being admitted into hospital with severe food allergies at five times the rate of a decade ago. The report’s author, Professor Raymond Mullins who also works as a practitioner in Canberra, noted a 12-fold increase in childhood allergies in the last couple of years.”
By 2001 there had been a 25 per cent rise in asthma in Sydney, with an increase in the death rate by 5 per cent.
Another report by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare in 2005 found that asthma is the most common chronic disease among children up to the age of 14.”
In 1997 microbiologist Dr Peter French of St Vincent’s Hospital in Sydney was conducting experiments on mast cells. What he discovered was that the production of histamine – the chemical responsible for allergic reactions – and which is involved in bronchial spasm, is nearly doubled after exposure to mobile phone frequencies. He speculated that this could result in an increase in illnesses such as asthma and allergies in the years to come.”
• Low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFs) have been shown to increase the number of mast cells in the body.”
• Microwaves have also been found to increase immunoglobulin antibodies in the body which are responsible for triggering an allergic reaction to a particular substance or protein.”
Dr. John Holt … pointed out that mobile phone frequencies double the amount of histamines and thus cause asthma and allergies.
Exposure to electromagnetic radiation has been shown to effect an abnormal drop in the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.”
A drop in the levels of this neurotransmitter has been linked to a number of neurological and neuromuscular disorders – including Alzheimer’s disease.
Several studies demonstrated the permeability of the blood brain barrier by Salford and his colleagues” and in 2003 another study showed that mobile phones damage key brain cells and could trigger the early onset of Alzheimer’s disease. They found that radiation from mobile phone handsets damages areas of the brain associated with learning, memory and movement. “We have good reason to believe that what happens in rat’s brains also happens in humans”, he said.”
“Melatonin plays a vital free radical scavenging role in the brain where, because it is high in iron, has a high production rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH·). Free radical damage is now known to play a formative role in most brain disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s disease, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.” Dr Neil Cherry.
“EM fields alter the levels of protective proteins…. these protective proteins are related to Alzheimer’s and that a reduction in protective proteins means a greater probability of Alzheimer’s. This is a theory which we have not tested, but there is data out there that appears to relate the incidence of Alzheimer’s to exposure to electromagnetic fields.” Professor Ted Litovitz
An Australian study confirms that the rate of childhood arthritis is four to six times higher than rates typically quoted.
Data released in the Medical Journal of Australia showed that there was a jump of 46 per cent in arthritis cases from 1990 to 1995.
“There is a clear indication of a dramatic growth in the prevalence of arthritis in people aged 24 and over”. Dr Kenneth Muirden of the Arthritis Foundation of Australia,
As mentioned in the section on obesity, being overweight is putting people at risk of not just heart disease as they get older but also the crippling bone disease arthritis.
“Multiple observations of melatonin reduction in EMR-exposed populations mean that EMR exposure increases the incidence of arthritis, diabetes, cancer, reproductive, neurological and cardiac disease and or death, as identified by Reiter and Robinson.” Dr Neil Cherry”
“Reduced melatonin leads to increased DNA strand breaks and chromosome aberrations. These in turn lead to cancer and reproductive effects.” Dr Neil Cherry.
“It is clear from my reading of the scientific literature and experiments which I have conducted that there is the strong possibility that biological effects may be induced by long-term exposure to low levels of microwaves and radio frequency fields.” Dr Peter French, 1997
The Dangers of Microwave Technology
“If the bee disappears from the surface of the earth,
man has no more than four years to live; no more bees, no more pollination, no more plants, no more animals, no more humanity!”
(Credited to Albert Einstein)
STIMULATION TO EMIT PIPING NOISE
In a Swiss study, published in April 2011, two mobile phones were placed close to a beehive, and the piping made by bees was recorded. All experiments showed clearly
that the worker bees were stimulated to emit piping sounds. Under natural conditions such piping is used to signal the preparation for swarming or as a reaction
to disturbances in the hives. These observations are yet another proof that bees are susceptible to pulsed electromagnetic fields and that they exhibit sensitive behaviour
alterations when exposed to them. Interestingly enough, the number of bee colonies is dwindling mainly in parts of the earth where mobile phones are widespread
(such as North America, Europe, Australia, Southern Brazil, Taiwan and Japan). The connection between dying bees and mobile communications is indisputable!
About this Brochure
The bioscientist Ulrich Warnke knows the electromagnetic workings of nature better than most. In this brochure, which opens a new science series by independent scientists, medical doctors, and technicians, he shows how nature uses much wisdom and sensitivity in employing electric as well as magnetic fields in the creation of life. But, therefore, he is also in a position to convincingly criticize how foolish and irresponsible we are as we interfere with this delicate natural balance today. According to the findings of this brochure, we are currently
in the process of destroying in less than a few decades what nature took to create over millions of years. The outlook is all the more worrisome because it is not based on hypotheses and probabilities but the work of verifiable and reproducible effect mechanisms. We think that the protective provisions of the German Constitution obligate the responsible elected officials to draw the necessary conclusions. Anybody who still relies on downplaying the risk, the most convenient of all strategies used most frequently to pretend that there
were no known serious risks, only signals that short-term economic interests are more important to this person than the future of the coming generations.
Ulrich Warnke summarizes the findings of his brochure as follows: “Today, unprecedented exposure levels and intensities of magnetic, electric, and electromagnetic fields from numerous wireless technologies interfere with the natural information system and functioning of humans, animals, and plants. The consequences of this development, which have already been predicted by critics for
many decades, cannot be ignored anymore. Bees and other insects vanish; birds avoid certain places and become disorientated at others. Humans suffer from functional impairments and diseases. And insofar as the latter are hereditary, they will be passed on to next generations as pre-existing defects”
Prof. Dr. K. Hecht, Dr. med. M. Kern, Prof. Dr. K. Richter, Dr. med. H.-Chr. Scheiner
About the Author
The main research areas of Dr. rer. nat. Ulrich Warnke, an internationally renowned bioscientist at Saarland
University, include biomedicine, environmental medicine, and biophysics. For decades his research interest
centered especially on the effects of electromagnetic fields.